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At right is the ancient Mayan Pyramid Chichen Itza, Yucatan, Mexico.
The Pyramid of Kukulkan at Chichén Itzá, constructed circa 1050 was built during the late Mayan period, when Toltecs from Tula became politically powerful.
Of these, only the Haab has a direct relationship to the length of the year.
A typical Mayan date looks like this: .2.6, 3 Cimi 4 Zotz.
(This apparent accuracy could, however, be a simple coincidence. they took a different approach than either Europeans or Asians.
The Mayas estimated that a 365-day year precessed through all the seasons twice in 220.127.116.11.0 days. Suppose the 18.104.22.168.0 days had corresponded to 2.001 cycles rather than 2 cycles of the 365-day year, would the Mayas have noticed? They maintained three different calendars at the same time.
It consisted of a 365-day agricultural calendar, as well as a 260-day sacred calendar. Color added for visibility.) Among their other accomplishments, the ancient Mayas invented a calendar of remarkable accuracy and complexity.
This 260-day cycle also had good-luck or bad-luck associations connected with each day, and for this reason, it became known as the "divinatory year." The "years" of the Tzolkin calendar are not counted. It consisted of 18 "months" of 20 days each, followed by 5 extra days, known as Uayeb. The names of the month were: In contrast to the Tzolkin dates, the Haab month names changed every 20 days instead of daily; so the day after 4 Zotz would be 5 Zotz, followed by 6 Zotz ... The Uayeb days acquired a very derogatory reputation for bad luck; known as "days without names" or "days without souls," and were observed as days of prayer and mourning.
Fires were extinguished and the population refrained from eating hot food.
The pyramid was used as a calendar: four stairways, each with 91 steps and a platform at the top, making a total of 365, equivalent to the number of days in a calendar year.
The Maya calendar was adopted by the other Mesoamerican nations, such as the Aztecs and the Toltec, which adopted the mechanics of the calendar unaltered but changed the names of the days of the week and the months. The Maya calendar uses three different dating systems in parallel, the Long Count, the Tzolkin (divine calendar), and the Haab (civil calendar).