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In recent years, some Mandaean families have moved outside of “Mandaean territory,” to Tehran, Karaj, and Shiraz.
The English adventurer Austen Henry Layard met Mandaeans in Howayza in 1841.
John” who consider John the Baptist as their prophet and as the renewer of their Adam-derived religion.
The Mandaeans must have arrived into Persia from the west (i.e., Jordan, Palestine) as early as the 1st and 2nd centuries CE, although scholars disagree on the exact dates and places of a possibly gradual and segmented emigration of the Mandaeans from West to East.
According to the 15 September 2004 United States Department of State International Religious Freedom Report for Iran, Section 1, the current Mandaean population in Persia comprises between 5,000 and 10,000 persons.
The United Nations High Commissioner of Refugees report on Iran (26 August 1997) puts the number at 6,200.